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         Types of diabetes

What is diabetes?
Diabetes happens when the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood is too high because the body is unable to use it properly. This is because the body’s method of converting glucose into energy is not working as it should.

Glucose is produced when our body digests starchy foods such as bread, rice, potatoes, and sugar and other sweet foods. The liver also makes glucose. The blood carries glucose to all the cells. A hormone called insulin helps the glucose to enter the cells,where the body uses it as a fuel. Insulin is made in the pancreas – a large gland that lies behind the stomach. As the insulin lets the cells take glucose out of the blood, the amount of glucose left in the blood goes down.

There are two types of diabetes.
• People with type 1 diabetes do not produce any insulin.
• People with type 2 diabetes do not produce enough insulin, or their cells lose the ability to use the insulin.

In people with diabetes, the cells become starved of glucose because they cannot get it from the blood. At the same time, because the glucose cannot get into the cells, the level of glucose in the blood goes up.

Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2 diabetes and it usually develops in children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes probably happens because the body’s own immune system (the cells that fight infection) attacks the pancreas and destroys its ability to make insulin. The cause of this is probably viruses or other infections, but nobody is really sure.

Type 2 diabetes
Most people with diabetes – about nine out of every 10 – have type 2 diabetes. This condition tends to develop gradually after the age of 40. many cases obesity is closely linked to type 2 diabetes and this may be an important factor in the increasing number of cases of type 2 diabetes.

It is a worrying trend that, in recent years, type 2 diabetes is being diagnosed more and more in younger people, and even in children. It seems that this is largely due to the fact that children these days lead less active lifestyles.

Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of diabetes. People are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if they have some or all of the following risk factors:

• not being physically active enough
• being overweight
• a family history of type 2 diabetes
• previous diabetes in pregnancy (gestational diabetes).

The risk of developing type 2 diabetes can be significantly reduced by lifestyle changes which
increase physical activity and reduce body weight.

      Doctor Tips
Angina is an uncomfortable feeling or pain in the chest.
It usually feels like a heaviness or tightness.
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